Ordinal Numbers in Dates
چېسلا بىلدۈرۈشتە ئىشلىتىلىدىغان تەرتىپ سان
Ordinal numbers are used almost exclusively when expressing years, months, days of the week, and dates in general. As mentioned previously, it is standard to adopt the "hyphen notation" when expressing these in writing - e.g., writing يىل ـ 2001 as opposed to ئىككى مىڭ بىرىنچى يىل.
Days of the Week: Days of the week may be expressed in two ways in Uyghur. The first way is to use the Persian names (more akin to the English "Monday", "Tuesday", etc.), while the second, more numerical, involves the structure كۈنى + [ordinal number from 1 to 7] + ھەپتىنىڭ. The use of the hyphen notation appears to be optional and up to the writer in the latter. Another alternate, and shorter, structure is simply [number from 1 to 7 plus third-person possessive suffix] + ھەپتىنىڭ.
Months: Like with days, there is both a qualitative and quantitative way to express months. The qualitative way simply borrows the months' names from Russian. For the quantitative, one simply uses the ordinal number from 1 to 12, followed by the word ئاي ("month"). It is standard to use the hyphen notation in this case if the month is being specified in some sort of formal or official document.
Years: Specific years are always expressed in ordinal form, with the hyphen notation used in almost all such scenarios.
Days of the Month: There are several ways to express a particular day of a given month. The first involves adding the genitive suffix نىڭ to the month and then giving the day number in ordinal form, followed by كۈنى ("day" in the third-person possessive form, since it "belongs" to the month by the genitive construction). Another way involves stating the day number in ordinal form, followed by the Russian (rather than numerical) name of the month.
Alternatively, one can drop the كۈنى in the first two variants, while replacing the ordinal number with the number in its third-person possessive form.
When the month is clear from the context - often, this is the current month - one may use the ordinal number followed by the word چېسلا ("date"). This is analogous to such English expressions as "the fifteenth" or "the sixth" when talking about dates.
Full Dates: Full dates consisting of day, month, and year are typically expressed numerically with the year specified first, followed by the month, and then by the day. All three numbers (year, month, and day) appear as ordinals, with the word "month" taking the genitive suffix (ئاينىڭ) and the word "day" taking the third-person possessive (كۈنى).
Decades and Centuries: Decades are expressed by stating the numbers 10, 20, ..., or 90 in ordinal form, followed by the word يىللار ("years"). The exact century to which they belong should be clear from the context, although this will often be the past century (as in English, where "the nineties", unless specified otherwise, will undoubtedly refer to the 1990s).
Centuries are specified by placing the century number in the ordinal and adding the word ئەسىر ("century").