Paj-Puj: Ordinal Numbers in Dates

Ordinal Numbers in Dates

چېسلا بىلدۈرۈشتە ئىشلىتىلىدىغان تەرتىپ سان

Ordinal numbers are used almost exclusively when expressing years, months, days of the week, and dates in general. As mentioned previously, it is standard to adopt the "hyphen notation" when expressing these in writing - e.g., writing يىل ـ 2001 as opposed to ئىككى مىڭ بىرىنچى يىل.

Days of the Week: Days of the week may be expressed in two ways in Uyghur. The first way is to use the Persian names (more akin to the English "Monday", "Tuesday", etc.), while the second, more numerical, involves the structure كۈنى + [ordinal number from 1 to 7] + ھەپتىنىڭ. The use of the hyphen notation appears to be optional and up to the writer in the latter. Another alternate, and shorter, structure is simply [number from 1 to 7 plus third-person possessive suffix] + ھەپتىنىڭ.

 
Monday
 
دۈشەنبە
ھەپتىنىڭ بىرىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ بىرى

 
Tuesday
 
سەيشەنبە
ھەپتىنىڭ ئىككىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ ئىككىسى

 
Wednesday
 
چارشەنبە
ھەپتىنىڭ ئۈچىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ ئۈچى

 
Thursday
 
پەيشەنبە
ھەپتىنىڭ تۆتىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ تۆتى

 
Friday
 
جۈمە
ھەپتىنىڭ بەشىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ بەشى

 
Saturday
 
شەنبە
ھەپتىنىڭ ئالتىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ ئالتىسى

 
Sunday
 
يەكشەنبە
ھەپتىنىڭ يەتتىنچى كۈنى
ھەپتىنىڭ يەتتىسى

Months: Like with days, there is both a qualitative and quantitative way to express months. The qualitative way simply borrows the months' names from Russian. For the quantitative, one simply uses the ordinal number from 1 to 12, followed by the word ئاي ("month"). It is standard to use the hyphen notation in this case if the month is being specified in some sort of formal or official document.

 
January
 
يانۋار
ئاي ـ 1
بىرىنچى ئاي

 
February
 
فېۋرال
ئاي ـ 2
ئىككىنچى ئاي

 
March
 
مارت
ئاي ـ 3
ئۈچىنچى ئاي

 
April
 
ئاپرېل
ئاي ـ 4
تۆتىنچى ئاي

 
May
 
ماي
ئاي ـ 5
بەشىنچى ئاي

 
June
 
ئىيۇن
ئاي ـ 6
ئالتىنچى ئاي

 
July
 
ئىيۇل
ئاي ـ 7
يەتتىنچى ئاي

 
August
 
ئاۋغۇست
ئاي ـ 8
سەككىزىنچى ئاي

 
September
 
سېنتەبىر
ئاي ـ 9
توققۇزىنچى ئاي

 
October
 
ئۆكتەبىر
ئاي ـ 10
ئونىنچى ئاي

 
November
 
نويابىر
ئاي ـ 11
ئون بىرىنچى ئاي

 
December
 
دېكابىر
ئاي ـ 12
ئون ئىككىنچى ئاي

I'm going to Beijing at the beginning of June.
.ئالتىنچى ئاينىڭ بېشىدا بېيجىڭغا بارىمەن

Years: Specific years are always expressed in ordinal form, with the hyphen notation used in almost all such scenarios.

 
(the year) 1985
 

يىل ـ 1985

 
(the year) 2011
 

يىل ـ 2001

Days of the Month: There are several ways to express a particular day of a given month. The first involves adding the genitive suffix نىڭ to the month and then giving the day number in ordinal form, followed by كۈنى ("day" in the third-person possessive form, since it "belongs" to the month by the genitive construction). Another way involves stating the day number in ordinal form, followed by the Russian (rather than numerical) name of the month.

 
June 15
 
ئىيۇننىڭ 15 ـ كۈنى
كۈنى ئاينىڭ 15 ـ ـ 6
ئىيۇن ـ 15

 
March 7
 
مارتنىڭ 7 ـ كۈنى
كۈنى ئاينىڭ 7 ـ ـ 3
مارت ـ 7

Alternatively, one can drop the كۈنى in the first two variants, while replacing the ordinal number with the number in its third-person possessive form.

June 15
 
ئىيۇننىڭ ئون بەشى
ئون بەشى ئاينىڭ ـ 6

March 7
 
مارتنىڭ يەتتىسى
يەتتىسى ئاينىڭ ـ 3

When the month is clear from the context - often, this is the current month - one may use the ordinal number followed by the word چېسلا ("date"). This is analogous to such English expressions as "the fifteenth" or "the sixth" when talking about dates.

 
the fifteenth (of the month)
 

چېسلا ـ 15

 
the seventh (of the month)
 

چېسلا ـ 7

They're setting out on the seventeenth.
 
.ئۇلار ئون يەتتىنچى چېسلا يولغا چىقىدۇ
.ئۇلار 17 ـ چېسلا يولغا چىقىدۇ

Full Dates: Full dates consisting of day, month, and year are typically expressed numerically with the year specified first, followed by the month, and then by the day. All three numbers (year, month, and day) appear as ordinals, with the word "month" taking the genitive suffix (ئاينىڭ) and the word "day" taking the third-person possessive (كۈنى).

June 15, 1985
 

يىل 6 ـ ئاينىڭ 15 ـ كۈنى ـ 1985

November 11, 1922
 

يىل 11 ـ ئاينىڭ 11 ـ كۈنى ـ 1922

Decades and Centuries: Decades are expressed by stating the numbers 10, 20, ..., or 90 in ordinal form, followed by the word يىللار ("years"). The exact century to which they belong should be clear from the context, although this will often be the past century (as in English, where "the nineties", unless specified otherwise, will undoubtedly refer to the 1990s).

the thirties
 
ئوتتۇزىنچى يىللار
يىللار ـ 30

the seventies
 
يەتتىنچى يىللار
يىللار ـ 70

Eighties' fashion is different from that of the nineties.
.سەكسىنىنچى يىللاردىكى مودا توقسىنىنچى يىللاردىكىگە ئوخشىمايدۇ

Centuries are specified by placing the century number in the ordinal and adding the word ئەسىر ("century").

 
fifteenth century
 

ئەسىر ـ 15

nineteenth century
 

ئەسىر ـ 19


References

  1. Personal research/experience
  2. Gulnisa Nazarova, Kurban Niyaz, "Uyghur: An Elementary Textbook". Georgetown University Press: 2013. (p. 138-139)
  3. Renee D. Gaines, "Beginning Uyghur for English Speakers". Xinjiang University Press: Urumqi, 2010. (p. 202)
  4. Tarjei Engesæth, Mahire Yakup, Arienne M. Dwyer, "Greetings from the Teklimakan: a handbook of Modern Uyghur". University of Kansas: Kansas, 2009. (p. 83-84, 134)
  5. Hamit A. Zakir, "Introduction to Modern Uighur". Xinjiang University Press: Urumqi, 2007. (p. 68-69)
  6. Frederick De Jong, "A Grammar of Modern Uyghur". Houtsma Stichting: Utrecht, 2007. (p. 96-97)
  7. Hämit Tömür, "Modern Uyghur Grammar" (translation by Anne Lee). Yıldız: Istanbul, 2003. (p. 50, 145)
  8. Reinhard F. Hahn, Ablahat Ibrahim, "Spoken Uyghur". University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1991. (p. 246, 294)