Paj-Puj: The Particle <span style="font-family:sans-serif;" >لا</span> in the All-Inclusive Role

The Particle لا in the All-Inclusive Role

ھەممىنى ئۆز ئىچىگە ئېلىشنى بىلدۈرىدىغان «لا» يۈكلىمىسى

In certain scenarios, the particle لا is used in the all-inclusive role to emphasize that the stated event or characteristic applies to every person mentioned, every time considered, everything in consideration, etc.

One such case is when لا is added to question particles, in which case the لا becomes analogous to "ever" in English expressions such as "whichever", "whenever", "whatever". This is generally used to form two-phrase expressions where the first phrase uses the negative imperative.

She has many admirers wherever she goes.
 
.ئۇ نەگىلا بارمىسۇن، ئۇنى ياخشى كۆرىدىغانلار بەك كۆپ
.ئۇ نەگىلا بارمىسۇن، ئۇنى ياخشى كۆرىدىغان ئادەملەر بەك كۆپ

Whatever he's taken up, he's always finished the job.
.ئۇ نېمىلا قىلمىسۇن، بۇ خىزمەتنى ئىشلەپ بولدى

Whichever of these products it may be, they're all expensive.
.بۇ ماللارنىڭ قايسىسىلا بولمىسۇن، ھەممىسى قىممەت

If you've got a secret, don't tell it to Tursun. He'll let the cat out of the bag to the first person that asks.
.سىرىڭىز بولسا تۇرسۇنغا دېمەڭ، ئۇنىڭ ئاغزىنى كىملا تاتىلىسا سىرىڭىزنى بىلىۋالىدۇ

Entering the emperor's affluent palace, the hero saw gold everywhere he cast his eyes.
.پالۋان پادىشاھنىڭ باياشات ئوردىسىغا كىرىپ، نەگىلا كۆز يۈگۈرتسە ئالتۇن ئۇچرىتىپتۇ

When added to a perfect participle functioning as an adjective, لا indicates that everyone to whom the adjective applies is included in the following statement. This is analogous to the English "everyone who has..."

Dolkun is a handsome lad. Every girl who's seen him falls in love with him.
.دولقۇن كېلىشكەن يىگىت، كۆرگەنلا قىز بالىلار ئۇنى ياخشى كۆرۈپ قالىدۇ

This sofa is very comfortable. Everyone who's sat on it loses the desire to get back up.
.بۇ سافا بەك راھەتلىك، ئولتۇرغانلا ئادەمنىڭ قوپقۇسى كەلمەيدۇ

When coupled with a numerical pronoun in the third person, لا forms expressions analogous to "both/all... of them". This is particularly interesting morphologically, since لا is added first to the number and then the possessive suffix سى is applied - e.g., "all three of them" being ئۈچ+لا+سى=ئۈچلىسى.

She has four daughters, and all four are pretty.
.ئۇنىڭ تۆت قىزى بار، تۆتلىسى چىرايلىق

I've got two cars, but they're both out of service.
.مېنىڭ ئىككى ماشىنام بار، لېكىن ئىككىلىسى بۇزۇلۇپ قالدى


References

  1. Personal research/experience
  2. Tarjei Engesæth, Mahire Yakup, Arienne M. Dwyer, "Greetings from the Teklimakan: a handbook of Modern Uyghur". University of Kansas: Kansas, 2009. (p. 153)
  3. Hämit Tömür, "Modern Uyghur Grammar" (translation by Anne Lee). Yıldız: Istanbul, 2003. (p. 501, 502)
  4. Reinhard F. Hahn, Ablahat Ibrahim, "Spoken Uyghur". University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1991. (p. 348)
  5. 易坤琇, "维吾尔语语法"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1998。 (p. 147-148)
  6. 米海力, "维吾尔语喀什话研究"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1997。 (p. 78)