Paj-Puj: What are Postpositions?

What are Postpositions?

تىركەلمە دېگەن نېمە؟

Postpositions are words that are usually placed after a noun to create an adjective or an adverb. In English, the most commonly used examples would be "ago", "away", or "aside", as English generally uses prepositions instead - for example, "by" ("a book by...") or "about" ("a book about..."). The situation in Uyghur is the opposite in this sense, as there are no prepositions and only postpositions. Below are some examples of Uyghur postpositions:

I've gotten in touch with him at some point already.
.مەن ئاللىقاچان ئۇنىڭ بىلەن ئالاقە قىلىشقان

We spoke through a translator.
.بىز تەرجىمان ئارقىلىق سۆزلەشتۇق

She doesn't know anything about me.
 
.ئۇ مەن توغرىسىدا ھېچ نەرسە بىلمەيدۇ
.ئۇ مەن توغرۇلۇق ھېچ نەرسە بىلمەيدۇ

In the first example, the postposition بىلەن ("with") is attached to ئۇ ("he") to create the adverbial ئۇنىڭ بىلەن ("with him") - note the addition of the genitive suffix نىڭ, which is necessary in this particular case. In the second example, the postposition ئارقىلىق ("via", "through", "by means of") is attached to تەرجىمان ("translator") to create the adverbial تەرجىمان ئارقىلىق ("via/through/by means of a translator"). Finally, in the third example the postposition توغرىسىدا، توغرۇلۇق ("about", "on the subject of", "concerning") is added to مەن ("I") to create the adverbial مەن توغرىسىدا، مەن توغرۇلۇق ("about/concerning me"). Some postpositions require for the noun they are attached to to be in one of the Uyghur cases (usually in the dative, locative, or ablative).


References

  1. Personal research/experience
  2. Frederick De Jong, "A Grammar of Modern Uyghur". Houtsma Stichting: Utrecht, 2007. (p. 54)
  3. Hämit Tömür, "Modern Uyghur Grammar" (translation by Anne Lee). Yıldız: Istanbul, 2003. (p. 36-37, 74-75, 469-472)
  4. E. N. Nadzhip, "Modern Uigur". Nauka Publishing House: Moscow, 1971. (p. 80)
  5. G. Raquette, "Eastern Turki Grammar: Practical and Theoretical with Vocabulary - Part II". Reichsdruckerei: Berlin, 1912. (p. 192-193)
  6. 米海力, "维吾尔语喀什话研究"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1997。 (p. 119)