What are Postpositions?
تىركەلمە دېگەن نېمە؟
Postpositions are words that are usually placed after a noun to create an adjective or an adverb. In English, the most commonly used examples would be "ago", "away", or "aside", as English generally uses prepositions instead - for example, "by" ("a book by...") or "about" ("a book about..."). The situation in Uyghur is the opposite in this sense, as there are no prepositions and only postpositions. Below are some examples of Uyghur postpositions:
In the first example, the postposition بىلەن ("with") is attached to ئۇ ("he") to create the adverbial ئۇنىڭ بىلەن ("with him") - note the addition of the genitive suffix نىڭ, which is necessary in this particular case. In the second example, the postposition ئارقىلىق ("via", "through", "by means of") is attached to تەرجىمان ("translator") to create the adverbial تەرجىمان ئارقىلىق ("via/through/by means of a translator"). Finally, in the third example the postposition توغرىسىدا، توغرۇلۇق ("about", "on the subject of", "concerning") is added to مەن ("I") to create the adverbial مەن توغرىسىدا، مەن توغرۇلۇق ("about/concerning me"). Some postpositions require for the noun they are attached to to be in one of the Uyghur cases (usually in the dative, locative, or ablative).