Paj-Puj: The Noun-to-Verb Derivation Suffix <span style="font-family:sans-serif;" >لاش|لەش</span>

The Noun-to-Verb Derivation Suffix لاش|لەش

ئىسىمدىن پېئىل ياسايدىغان «لاش|لەش» ئارقا قوشۇمچىسى

When it comes to forming verbs, the suffix لاش|لەش is probably the second most productive after لا|لە and, like the latter, may be added to a lot of different words to create verbs related to that word. Here, we give examples of when it is added to nouns.

end (noun) + [verb] = to end
 
ئاخىر + لاش = ئاخىرلاش ـ
ئاياغ + لاش = ئاياغلاش ـ

process, continuation + [verb] = to continue
داۋام + لاش = داۋاملاش ـ

the public + [verb] = to become widespread
ئومۇم + لاش = ئومۇملاش ـ

rust, corrosion + [verb] = to rust, to corrode
دات + لاش = داتلاش ـ

form, mould + [verb] = to take a certain form or shape
قېلىپ + لاش = قېلىپلاش ـ

home + [verb] = to settle down
ماكان + لاش = ماكانلاش ـ

place, location + [verb] = to move into, to be assigned/allocated to
ئورۇن + لاش = ئورۇنلاش ـ

center (noun) + [verb] = to be centralized, to be accumulated in one spot
مەركەز + لەش = مەركەزلەش ـ

It's necessary that we all work together to complete this assignment.
.بۇ ۋەزىپىنى ھەممىمىز قولمۇقول ئورۇنلاشقا توغرا كېلىدۇ

"Why does Urumqi have such cold weather?"
"Naturally, because it's north of the Tian Shan."
 
ـــ ئۈرۈمچىنىڭ ھاۋاسى نېمانچە سوغۇق؟
.ـــ ئۈرۈمچى تەڭرىتاغنىڭ شىمالىغا جايلاشقان ـ دە

A particular characteristic of adding لاش|لەش to nouns is that the resulting verb is often, but not always, mutual in nature (i.e., an action involving multiple people that is mutual between them). In English, these verbs are often rendered with the help of such words as "together" or "to each other". This should not be confused with the mutual voice, though - the latter is formed by adding the suffixes ش|ىش|ۇش|ۈش to a verb stem, which results in verbs that have a mutual meaning and look much like those formed with لاش|لەش.

conversation + [verb] = to chat
پاراڭ + لاش = پاراڭلاش ـ

(a) partner + [verb] = to collaborate, to work together
 
ھەمكار + لاش = ھەمكارلاش ـ
شېرىك + لەش = شېرىكلەش ـ

help (noun) + [verb] = to help out, to help each other
ياردەم + لەش = ياردەملەش ـ

alliance + [verb] = to unite (together)
ئىتتىپاق + لاش = ئىتتىپاقلاش ـ

advice + [verb] = to consult (with)
مەسلىھەت + لەش = مەسلىھەتلەش ـ

love (noun) + [verb] = to be in love (with one another)
مۇھەببەت + لەش = مۇھەببەتلەش ـ

(a) joke + [verb] = to joke (together, with one another)
چاقچاق + لاش = چاقچاقلاش ـ

greetings + [verb] = to greet one another
سالام + لاش = سالاملاش ـ

competition, argument + [verb] = to be in competition (with one another)
بەس + لەش = بەسلەش ـ

idea + [verb] = to discuss, to exchange ideas (with one another)
پىكىر + لەش = پىكىرلەش ـ

(a) dispute + [verb] = to quarrel (with one another)
جېدەل + لەش = جېدەللەش ـ

news, information + [verb] = to communicate (with one another)
خەۋەر + لەش = خەۋەرلەش ـ

(business) competition + [verb] = to compete (with one another)
رىقابەت + لەش = رىقابەتلەش ـ

conversation, discussion + [verb] = to discuss (with one another)
سۆھبەت + لەش = سۆھبەتلەش ـ

(a) turn, shift + [verb] = to work in shifts
نۆۋەت + لەش = نۆۋەتلەش ـ

We helped them as well.
.بىزمۇ ئۇلارغا ياردەملەشتۇق

I'm sure that we would be able to do this properly if we discussed it with the professor.
.بىز پروفېسسور بىلەن سۆھبەتلەشسەكقۇ، بۇ ئىشلارنى ياخشى قىلاتتۇق

It's gotten really hot. Rather than stand here and chat, let's go under the eaves and chat there.
.كۈن بەك ئىسسىپ كەتتى، مەيەردە تۇرماي پېشايۋانغا بېرىپ پاراڭلىشايلى

The vowel-reduction rules follow the standard pattern, with nouns that end in ئا or ئە having these vowels reduce to an ئى after the addition of the لاش|لەش.

connection, communication + [verb] = to stay in touch
ئالاقە + لەش = ئالاقىلەش ـ

the space between + [verb] = to associate with, to interfere
ئارا + لاش = ئارىلاش ـ

business, trade + [verb] = to do business, to bargain
سودا + لاش = سودىلاش ـ

(a) competition + [verb] = to compete (with one another)
مۇسابىقە + لەش = مۇسابىقىلەش ـ

oath, promise + [verb] = to promise (to one another)
ۋەدە + لەش = ۋەدىلەش ـ

If you only associate with your own kind, your mind will never expand.
.ئەگەر پەقەت ئۆز خىلىڭىز بىلەن ئارىلاشسىڭىز، خىيالىڭىز ھەرگىز كېڭەيمەيدۇ

Don't get involved with that man. I'm worried that he might cheat you.
.سىز ئۇ ئادەمگە ئارىلاشماڭ، ئۇ ئادەم سىزنى ئالداپ قويارمىكىن دەپ ئەنسىرەيمەن

No reduction takes place when the final ئا or ئە is a long vowel, or for other vowels.

lawsuit + [verb] = to sue (someone)
دەۋا + لاش = دەۋالاش ـ


See also: 4.12.4, 4.14.2, 4.16.2, 4.18.1


References

  1. Personal research/experience
  2. Hamit A. Zakir, "Introduction to Modern Uighur". Xinjiang University Press: Urumqi, 2007. (p. 87)
  3. Frederick De Jong, "A Grammar of Modern Uyghur". Houtsma Stichting: Utrecht, 2007. (p. 30)
  4. Hämit Tömür, "Modern Uyghur Grammar" (translation by Anne Lee). Yıldız: Istanbul, 2003. (p. 230, 400)
  5. E. N. Nadzhip, "Modern Uigur". Nauka Publishing House: Moscow, 1971. (p. 133)
  6. 易坤琇, "维吾尔语语法"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1998。 (p. 335-336)
  7. G. Raquette, "Eastern Turki Grammar: Practical and Theoretical with Vocabulary - Part II". Reichsdruckerei: Berlin, 1912. (p. 201)
  8. 米海力, "维吾尔语喀什话研究"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1997。 (p. 50, 60)