The Noun-to-Adjective Derivation Suffix ۋى|ىي

ئىسىمدىن سۈپەت ياسايدىغان «ۋى|ىي» ئارقا قوشۇمچىسى

The suffix ۋى|ىي may be added to a modest but significant number of nouns (usually of Persian/Arabic, but sometimes Russian, origin) to create adjectives that relate to the noun in question. Though it may seem baffling to call ۋى and ىي one suffix, the former was originally ۋىي - the version attached to nouns ending in vowels - before being subjected to spelling reforms (though the lost ي is often retained in speech). In modern written Uyghur, ۋى is found always when the noun ends in a short vowel, with (short) ئا|ئە reducing to an ئى.

people, community + [adjective] = public
ئامما + ۋى = ئاممىۋى

time + [adjective] = modern
زامانە + ۋى = زامانىۋى

meaning, sense + [adjective] = spiritual
مەنە + ۋى = مەنىۋى

theory + [adjective] = theoretical
نەزەرىيە + ۋى = نەزەرىيىۋى

tradition + [adjective] = traditional
ئەنئەنە + ۋى = ئەنئەنىۋى

views, ideology + [adjective] = ideological
ئىدىيە + ۋى = ئىدىيىۋى

neighborhood + [adjective] = local
مەھەللە + ۋى = مەھەللىۋى

the Party + [adjective] = Party (adjective)
پارتىيە + ۋى = پارتىيىۋى

Does there also exist a time when the public buses are not full of people?
ئاممىۋى ئاپتوبۇستا ئادەم ئاز ۋاقىتمۇ بارمۇ؟

When the final vowel is a long vowel and does not reduce, both ۋى and ىي are possible. No simple rules for memorizing which makes sense where exist, so it's best to just memorize these words (there aren't many).

sacrifice, offering + [adjective] = voluntary
پىدا + ىي = پىدائىي

origin, genesis + [adjective] = primitive, original
ئىپتىدا + ىي = ئىپتىدائىي

world (noun) + [adjective] = world (adjective)
دۇنيا + ۋى = دۇنياۋى

The ىي is attached to the nouns ending in consonants. In the vast majority of the cases when the penultimate letter in the noun is an ئا or an ئە, no reduction takes place as almost all such vowels are long.

public (noun) + [adjective] = public (adjective), general
ئومۇم + ىي = ئومۇمىي

one's choice + [adjective] = voluntary, of one's own free will
ئىختىيار + ىي = ئىختىيارىي

eternity + [adjective] = eternal
ئەبەد + ىي = ئەبەدىي

etiquette + [adjective] = literary
ئەدەب + ىي = ئەدەبىي

history + [adjective] = historical
تارىخ + ىي = تارىخىي

individual + [adjective] = private, personal
شەخس + ىي = شەخسىي

law + [adjective] = legal
قانۇن + ىي = قانۇنىي

ancient times + [adjective] = ancient
قەدىم + ىي = قەدىمىي

midway, middle of + [adjective] = semi-
نىسپ + ىي = نىسپىي

creation, invention + [adjective] = creative, inventive
ئىجاد + ىي = ئىجادىي

economy + [adjective] = economic
ئىقتىساد + ىي = ئىقتىسادىي

morals + [adjective] = moral (adjective)
ئەخلاق + ىي = ئەخلاقىي

nerves + [adjective] = nervous, tense
ئەسەب + ىي = ئەسەبىي

sex (gender) + [adjective] = sexual
جىنس + ىي = جىنسىي

thought, idea + [adjective] = imaginary
خىيال + ىي = خىيالىي

spirit + [adjective] = spiritual
روھ + ىي = روھىي

satire + [adjective] = satirical
ھەجۋ + ىي = ھەجۋىي

humanity + [adjective] = human (adjective)
ئىنسان + ىي = ئىنسانىي

religion + [adjective] = religious
دىن + ىي = دىنىي

class (in society) + [adjective] = class (adjective)
سىنىپ + ىي = سىنىپىي

However, there does exist a small handful of examples where the final ئا or ئە is short and thus reduces to an ئى.

leader + [adjective] = leading
رەھبەر + ىي = رەھبىرىي

center + [adjective] = central
مەركەز + ىي = مەركىزىي

A particularly useful set of words to remember here are the four compass directions.

east (noun) + [adjective] = east (adjective)
شەرق + ىي = شەرقىي

north (noun) + [adjective] = north (adjective)
شىمال + ىي = شىمالىي

west (noun) + [adjective] = west (adjective)
غەرب + ىي = غەربىي

south (noun) + [adjective] = south (adjective)
جەنۇب + ىي = جەنۇبىي

A certain set of nouns ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant will lose the final vowel with the addition of the ىي. All of these belong to the group of special nouns that also lose the final vowel when taking possessive suffixes.

intellect + [adjective] = intellectual
ئەقىل + ىي = ئەقلىي

convention + [adjective] = official, formal
رەسىم + ىي = رەسمىي

area of study, specialization + [adjective] = professional
كەسىپ + ىي = كەسپىي

knowledge, science + [adjective] = scientific
ئىلىم + ىي = ئىلمىي

sorcery + [adjective] = magic (adjective)
سېھىر + ىي = سېھرىي

Finally, there exist exceptions to the rules above.

matter, substance + [adjective] = material, physical
ماددا + ىي = ماددىي


References

  1. Personal research/experience
  2. Hamit A. Zakir, "Introduction to Modern Uighur". Xinjiang University Press: Urumqi, 2007. (p. 96)
  3. Hämit Tömür, "Modern Uyghur Grammar" (translation by Anne Lee). Yıldız: Istanbul, 2003. (p. 28, 119-120)
  4. E. N. Nadzhip, "Modern Uigur". Nauka Publishing House: Moscow, 1971. (p. 33, 129, 132)
  5. 易坤琇, "维吾尔语语法"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1998。 (p. 74)
  6. 米海力, "维吾尔语喀什话研究"。中央民族大学出版社: 北京, 1997。 (p. 52)
  7. Gulnisa Nazarova, Kurban Niyaz, "Uyghur: An Intermediate Textbook". Georgetown University Press: 2016. (p. 241)