Paj-Puj: The Noun-to-Noun Derivation Suffix <span style="font-family:sans-serif;" >لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك</span>

The Noun-to-Noun Derivation Suffix لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك

ئىسىمدىن ئىسىم ياسايدىغان «لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك» ئارقا قوشۇمچىسى

The suffix لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك is arguably the most productive derivation suffix in Uyghur, and can be attached to a vast number of words to make new words with a related meaning. Here, we will focus on how it may be used to derive nouns from other nouns.

Possibly the simplest and most noticeable use of لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك is in forming demonyms (words denoting where a person is from). This is analogous to suffixes like "er" ("New York" --> "New Yorker"), "ian" ("Boston" --> "Bostonian"), or "ite" ("Moscow" --> "Muscovite") in English, although the Uyghur variant is much simpler in that *only* the suffix لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك is used for all places (villages, cities, countries), while numerous suffixes, as just illustrated, are used in English. Note that the focus in these demonyms is on origins or long-term residence, and not on ethnicity - e.g., a Chinese person who grew up in France (فرانسىيە) could self-identify as a فرانسىيەلىك ("a person from France"), but not really as a فرانسۇز (a person who is ethnically French).

Kashgar + [demonym] = Kashgarian
قەشقەر + لىك = قەشقەرلىك

Are you also from Kashgar?
سىزمۇ قەسقەرلىكمۇ؟

Unfortunately, that foreigner doesn't seem to speak Uyghur. I don't know what he wanted to say.
.ئۇ چەت ئەللىك ئۇيغۇرچە سۆزلىيەلمەيدىكەن ـ دە، ئۇ نېمە دېمەكچى بولغانلىقىنى بىلمىدىم

More generally, this suffix may also be added to the question pronouns of location ("where?") to create a corresponding interrogative form ("a person from where?")

where? + [demonym] = a person from where?
 
قەيەر + لىك = قەيەرلىك
نە + لىك = نەلىك

When added to nouns indicating a person engaged in a certain profession, activity, or industry, the suffix لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك creates a noun that denotes that entire profession, activity, or industry.

governor + [domain] = government
ھۆكۈمران + لىق = ھۆكۈمرانلىق

owner, manager + [domain] = ownership, management
ئىگىدار + لىق = ئىگىدارلىق

linguist + [domain] = linguistics
تىلشۇناس + لىق = تىلشۇناسلىق

murderer + [domain] = murder
قاتىل + لىق = قاتىللىق

builder, architect + [domain] = construction, architecture
بىناكار + لىق = بىناكارلىق

translator + [domain] = translation (profession)
تەرجىمان + لىق = تەرجىمانلىق

commander + [domain] = commanding (as a profession/activity)
قوماندان + لىق = قوماندانلىق

journalist, reporter + [domain] = journalism
مۇخبىر + لىق = مۇخبىرلىق

cook + [domain] = cooking
ئاشپەز + لىك = ئاشپەزلىك

leader + [domain] = leadership
رەھبەر + لىك = رەھبەرلىك

fame seeker + [domain] = fame seeking
شۆھرەتپەرەس + لىك = شۆھرەتپەرەسلىك

representative + [domain] = representation
ۋەكىل + لىك = ۋەكىللىك

bribe taker + [domain] = bribery
پارىخور + لۇق = پارىخورلۇق

Is she still working as a teacher?
ئۇ ھازىرمۇ ئوقۇتقۇچىلىق قىلىۋاتامدۇ؟

With courage and heroism, let us obliterate the enemy!
!باتۇرلۇق ھەم قەھرىمانلىق بىلەن دۈشمەننى بىتچىت قىلايلى

Although he only has one arm, his swordsmanship is inferior to no one's.
.گەرچە ئۇنىڭ بىلىكى بىرلا بولسىمۇ، لېكىن قىلىچۋازلىق ماھارىتى ھېچكىمنىڭكىگە يول قويمايدۇ

In fact, the derivation suffix چىلىق|چىلىك, which is used to derive nouns that indicate a domain at large (again, an activity, industry, or profession), is often just a special case of this, being a combination of چى (which derives the person engaged in a certain activity) and لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك (which then derives the name of the activity).

reared + [person] = animal rearer
animal rearer + [domain] = animal husbandry, animal rearing
 
باقما + چى = باقمىچى
باقمىچى + لىق = باقمىچىلىق

livestock + [person] = livestock owner/caretaker
livestock owner/caretaker + [domain] = animal husbandry
 
چارۋا + چى = چارۋىچى
چارۋىچى + لىق = چارۋىچىلىق

travel + [person] = traveller
traveller + [domain] = tourism
 
ساياھەت + چى = ساياھەتچى
ساياھەتچى + لىك = ساياھەتچىلىك

supervision + [person] = supervisor
supervisor + [domain] = supervision (at large)
 
نازارەت + چى = نازارەتچى
نازارەتچى + لىك = نازارەتچىلىك

leading + [person] = leader
leader + [domain] = leadership, leading (at large)
 
يېتىك + چى = يېتىكچى
يېتىكچى + لىك = يېتىكچىلىك

fish + [person] = fisherman
fisherman + [domain] = fishing (at large)
 
بېلىق + چى = بېلىقچى
بېلىقچى + لىق = بېلىقچىلىق

scam + [person] = scammer, swindler
scammer, swindler + [domain] = fraud, trickery (at large)
 
ئالدام + چى = ئالدامچى
ئالدامچى + لىق = ئالدامچىلىق

an invasion + [person] = invader
invader + [domain] = invasion (at large)
 
باسقۇن + چى = باسقۇنچى
باسقۇنچى + لىق = باسقۇنچىلىق

head + [person] = leader
leader + [domain] = leadership
 
باش + چى = باشچى
باشچى + لىق = باشچىلىق

the first field to get irrigated + [person] = leader, pioneer
leader, pioneer + [domain] = leading, pioneering (at large)
 
باشلام + چى = باشلامچى
باشلامچى + لىق = باشلامچىلىق

cotton + [person] = cotton farmer/seller
cotton farmer/seller + [domain] = the cotton industry
 
پاختا + چى = پاختىچى
پاختىچى + لىق = پاختىچىلىق

woven + [person] = weaver
weaver + [domain] = the textile industry
 
توقۇما + چى = توقۇمىچى
توقۇمىچى + لىق = توقۇمىچىلىق

millet + [person] = farmer
farmer + [domain] = agriculture
 
تېرىق + چى = تېرىقچى
تېرىقچى + لىق = تېرىقچىلىق

funny + [person] = comedian
comedian + [domain] = humor, comedy
 
قىزىق + چى = قىزىقچى
قىزىقچى + لىق = قىزىقچىلىق

forest + [person] = forester
forester + [domain] = forestry
 
ئورمان + چى = ئورمانچى
ئورمانچى + لىق = ئورمانچىلىق

(a) hunt + [person] = hunter
hunter + [domain] = hunting (activity)
 
ئوۋ + چى = ئوۋچى
ئوۋچى + لىق = ئوۋچىلىق

false, fake + [person] = liar
liar + [domain] = deceit
 
يالغان + چى = يالغانچى
يالغانچى + لىق = يالغانچىلىق

Let one of us keep watch while one of us takes a nap.
.بىرىمىز كۆزەتچىلىك قىلايلى، بىرىمىز بىردەم ئۇخلايلى

More generally, this suffix may often be added to different kinds of people to create nouns that denote the concept related to, or represented by, that kind of person.

the person responsible + [concept] = responsibility
جاۋابكار + لىق = جاۋابكارلىق

emperor + [concept] = empire
خان + لىق = خانلىق

collaborator + [concept] = collaboration
ھەمكار + لىق = ھەمكارلىق

person + [concept] = mankind
كىشى + لىك = كىشىلىك

friend + [concept] = friendship
دوست + لۇق = دوستلۇق

child + [concept] = childhood
 
ئۆسمۈر + لۈك = ئۆسمۈرلۈك
بالا + لىق = بالىلىق

witness + [concept] = being a witness, testifying
گۇۋاھ + لىق = گۇۋاھلىق

heir + [concept] = inheritance
ۋارىس + لىق = ۋارىسلىق

sponsor + [concept] = sponsorship
كېپىل + لىك = كېپىللىك

slave + [concept] = slavery
قۇل + لۇق = قۇللۇق

young man + [concept] = (male) adolescence
يىگىت + لىك = يىگىتلىك

For our friendship!
!دوستلۇقىمىز ئۈچۈن

The suffix لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك is also added to some nouns to create the name of an object prepared especially for that noun.

winter + [object prepared] = winter provisions
قىش + لىق = قىشلىق

oil + [object prepared] = handkerchief, small towel
 
ياغ + لىق = ياغلىق
ماي + لىق = مايلىق

lesson + [object prepared] = teaching materials
دەرس + لىك = دەرسلىك

name(s) + [object prepared] = name list
ئىسىم + لىك = ئىسىملىك

sun + [object prepared] = umbrella
كۈن + لۈك = كۈنلۈك

rain + [object prepared] = raincoat
يامغۇر + لۇق = يامغۇرلۇق

festival + [object prepared] = things for a festival (food, presents)
ھېيت + لىق = ھېيتلىق

marriage + [object prepared] = dowry
توي + لۇق = تويلۇق

salt + [object prepared] = salt jar
تۇز + لۇق = تۇزلۇق

word(s) + [object prepared] = dictionary, vocabulary
سۆز + لۈك = سۆزلۈك

When added to certain objects (often plants), the suffix لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك creates the name of a place where that object (usually a plant) is plentiful (i.e., it grows there).

sand + [place] = desert, sandy area
قۇم + لۇق = قۇملۇق

mountain + [place] = mountainous region
تاغ + لىق = تاغلىق

ice + [place] = glacier
مۇز + لۇق = مۇزلۇق

tree + [place] = grove
دەرەخ + لىك = دەرەخلىك

Don't go picking the flowers in the flower bed, or else you'll be caught.
 
.گۈللۈكتىكى گۈللەرنى ئۈزمەڭلار، بىكار سىلەرنى تۇتۇۋالىدۇ
.گۈللۈكتىكى گۈللەرنى ئۈزمەڭلار، ھېلى بىكار سىلەرنى تۇتۇۋالىدۇ

After taking a long look at the pale desert, Aygul finally realized that she was lost.
.ئايگۈل قۇملۇقنىڭ سۇس رەڭگىگە ئۇزۇن قاراپ ئۆزىنىڭ ئېزىپ كەتكەنلىكىنى ئاخىرى چۈشەندى

Another case is when لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك is added to certain kinds of patches of land (e.g., gardens, oases), often ending in the suffix زار, to create a new noun which has a similar meaning, but is usually a richer, larger version of the original.

oasis + [amplifier] = oasis region
بوستان + لىق = بوستانلىق

forest + [amplifier] = forested region
ئورمان + لىق = ئورمانلىق

flower garden + [amplifier] = a rich, large flower garden
گۈلزار + لىق = گۈلزارلىق

There are no birds in this forest.
.بۇ ئورمانلىقتا قۇش يوق

Added to certain nouns indicating time periods (day, month, year), لىق|لىك|لۇق|لۈك creates nouns that denote the salary for that time period.

month + [salary] = monthly salary
ئاي + لىق = ئايلىق

The standard vowel-reduction rules apply when adding this suffix - i.e., if the word ends in an ئا or ئە vowel, this reduces to an ئى (provided that it is not a long vowel).

boss + [domain] = administration
خوجا + لىق = جوجىلىق

America + [demonym] = American
ئامېرىكا + لىق = ئامېرىكىلىق

With nouns ending in vowels other than ئا and ئە, or in the long-vowel ئا and ئە, no change in the vowel takes place.

France + [demonym] = person from France
فرانسىيە + لىك = فرانسىيەلىك


See also: 4.3.3, 4.10.2, 4.19.1, 4.20.1, 4.21.1, 4.22.1, 4.23.1, 4.24.1


References

  1. Personal research/experience
  2. Gulnisa Nazarova, Kurban Niyaz, "Uyghur: An Elementary Textbook". Georgetown University Press: 2013. (p. 63)
  3. Tarjei Engesæth, Mahire Yakup, Arienne M. Dwyer, "Greetings from the Teklimakan: a handbook of Modern Uyghur". University of Kansas: Kansas, 2009. (p. 77, 91, 121)
  4. Nabijan Tursun, "Uyghur Reader". Dunwoody Press: Hyattsville, 2009. (p. 122)
  5. Hamit A. Zakir, "Introduction to Modern Uighur". Xinjiang University Press: Urumqi, 2007. (p. 30, 35)
  6. Frederick De Jong, "A Grammar of Modern Uyghur". Houtsma Stichting: Utrecht, 2007. (p. 24)
  7. Hämit Tömür, "Modern Uyghur Grammar" (translation by Anne Lee). Yıldız: Istanbul, 2003. (p. 23, 42-43, 88-89)
  8. Reinhard F. Hahn, Ablahat Ibrahim, "Spoken Uyghur". University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1991. (p. 134, 138)
  9. E. N. Nadzhip, "Modern Uigur". Nauka Publishing House: Moscow, 1971. (p. 87, 89, 129, 130, 132, 133, 133-134, 134, 136, 137, 138)
  10. А. Кайдаров, "Краткий грамматический очерк уйгурского языка". 1966. (p. 9)
  11. G. Raquette, "Eastern Turki Grammar: Practical and Theoretical with Vocabulary". Reichsdruckerei: Berlin, 1912. (p. 174, 175)